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Calcium homeostasis: disease

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      • [...] is a chronic disorder that results in enlarged and misshapen bones due to accelerated remodelling.
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      • What are the 5 ways of treating osteoporosis?
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      • How is rickets treated (2)?
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      • The following are symptoms of which disease?
        Protruding forehead, pigeon chest, kyphosis, bending of long bones, rickety rosary (costochondral swelling)
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      • [...]calcaemia leads to a hyperexcitable nervous system.
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      • There is about [...] kg of Ca2+ in the bones in the form of hydroxyapatite.
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      • [...] is an element which, when given as a drug, increases bone density.
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      • In which form is most Ca2+ found in plasma?
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      • At which stage in life are women likely to develop osteoporosis?
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      • What is Bisphosphonate used to treat?
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      • [...]calcaemia leads to a hypoexcitable nervous system.
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      • What is the mechanism of action of Bisphosphonate?
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      • [...] is the softening of bones caused by defective bone mineralization.
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      • What effect does ageing have on the absorption of Ca2+?
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      • What effect do basic amino acids have on Ca2+ absorption?
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      • What is the main excretion route of Ca2+?
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      • Plasma Ca2+ >[...] mM is lethal.
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      • In osteomalacia, there a [...] amount of bone and a [...] mineral/matrix ratio.
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      • [...]calcaemia can lead to tetany.
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      • Why is whole bread reinforced with Ca2+?
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      • Plasma Ca2+ is [...]-[...] mM.
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      • What is the mechanism of action of Strontium?
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      • What effect does phytic acid have on Ca2+ absorption?
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      • [...]calcaemia can lead to ectopic calcification.
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      • Why do Scandinavian children not get rickets?
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      • Why are post-menopausal women more at risk of osteoporosis?
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      • Men should eat [...] g/day of Ca2+.
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      • Which drugs increase the risk of osteoporosis?
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      • Why do children in the tropics not get rickets?
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      • What are the 3 forms of Ca2+ in the plasma?
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      • [...] is the reduction of bone density to 2.5 SD below the mean.
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      • Plasma Ca2+ <[...] mM is lethal.
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      • What is Strontium used to treat?
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      • In osteoporosis, there a [...] amount of bone and a [...] mineral/matrix ratio.
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      • Ca2+ absorption requires vitamin [...].
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      • What effect does lactose have on Ca2+ absorption?
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Tags

Mbbs2, Sc13, Sc13l06, Bone, Physiology

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